Word of mouth, or viva voce,[3]


[edit] Storytelling

Storytelling often involves improvisation or embellishment. Stories or narratives have been shared in every culture as a means of entertainment, education, cultural preservation and in order to instill moral values.

The earliest forms of storytelling were thought to have been primarily oral combined with gesture storytelling for many of the ancient cultures. The Australian Aboriginal people painted symbols from stories on cave walls as a means of helping the storyteller remember the story. The story was then told using a combination of oral narrative, music, rock art and dance.

Traditionally, oral stories were committed to memory and then passed from generation to generation. However, in literate societies, written and televised media have largely replaced this method of communicating local, family and cultural histories. Oral storytelling remains the dominant medium of learning in some countries with low literacy rates.

[edit] Oral tradition

writing system.

Sociologists emphasize a requirement that the material is held in common by a group of people, over several generations, and thus distinguish oral tradition from [11]

[edit] Oral history


[edit] Word-of-mouth marketing


To promote and manage word-of-mouth communications, marketers use publicity techniques as well as viral marketing methods to achieve desired behavioral response. Companies can focus on brand advocates, the people who proactively recommend their favorite brands and products online and offline without being paid to do so.[16] Influencer marketing is also increasingly used to seed WOMM by targeting key individuals who have authority and many personal connections.

Marketers place significant value on positive word-of-mouth, which is traditionally achieved by creating products, services and customer experiences that generate conversation-worthy “buzz” naturally.[20]

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ http://www.thefreedictionary.com/by+word+of+mouth
  2. ^ http://42explore.com/story.htm
  3. ^ http://www.entrepreneur.com/encyclopedia/term/82660.html
  4. ^ Vansina, Jan: “Oral Tradition as History”, 1985, James Currey Publishers, ISBN 0-85255-007-3, ISBN 978-0-85255-007-6; at page 27 and 28, where Vasina defines oral tradition as “verbal messages which are reported statements from the past beyond the present generation” which “specifies that the message must be oral statements spoken sung or called out on musical instruments only”; “There must be transmission by word of mouth over at least a generation”. He points out that “Our definition is a working definition for the use of historians. Sociologists, linguists or scholars of the verbal arts propose their own, which in, e.g., sociology, stresses common knowledge. In linguistics, features that distinguish the language from common dialogue (linguists), and in the verbal arts features of form and content that define art (folklorists).”
  5. ^ Ki-Zerbo, Joseph: “Methodology and African Prehistory”, 1990, UNESCO International Scientific Committee for the Drafting of a General History of Africa; James Currey Publishers, ISBN 0-85255-091-X, 9780852550915; see Ch. 7; “Oral tradition and its methodology” at pages 54-61; at page 54: “Oral tradition may be defined as being a testimony transmitted verbally from one generation to another. Its special characteristics are that it is verbal and the manner in which it is transmitted.”
  6. ^ Henige, David. Oral, but Oral What? The Nomenclatures of Orality and Their Implications Oral Tradition, 3/1-2 (1988): 229-38. p 232; Henige cites Jan Vansina (1985). Oral tradition as history. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press
  7. ^ Degh, Linda. American Folklore and the Mass Media. Bloomington:IUP, 1994, p. 31
  8. ^ Dundes, Alan, “Editor’s Introduction” to “The Theory of Oral Composition,” John Miles Foley. Bloomington, IUP, 1988, pp. ix-xii
  9. ^ Henige, David. Oral, but Oral What? The Nomenclatures of Orality and Their Implications Oral Tradition, 3/1-2 (1988): 229-38. p 232; Henige cites Jan Vansina (1985). Oral tradition as history. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press
  10. ^ Oral History
  11. ^ Ong, Walter, S.J., “Orality and Literacy: The Technologizing of the Word.” London: Methuen, 1982 p 12
  12. ^ Keakopa, M. (1998). The role of the archivist in the collection and preservation of oral traditions. S.A. Archives Journal, 40,87-93.
  13. ^ Grewal, R., T.W. Cline, and A. Davies, 2003. Early-Entrant Advantage, Word-of-Mouth Communication, Brand Similarity, and the Consumer Decision-Making Process. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 13(3).
  14. ^ Stach, A. and A. Serenko, 2010. The Impact of Expectation Disconfirmation on Customer Loyalty and Recommendation Behavior: Investigating Online Travel and Tourism Services. Journal of Information Technology Management, XX(3), p. 26-41.
  15. ^ Turel, O., A. Serenko, and N. Bontis, 2010. User Acceptance of Hedonic Digital Artifacts: A Theory of Consumption Values Perspective. Information & Management, 47(1), p. 53-59.
  16. ^ http://www.reuters.com/article/2010/11/08/us-vcj-zuberance-idUSTRE6A731G20101108
  17. ^ Word of mouth advertising: Marketing-made-simple.com
  18. Laws Enforced by the Federal Trade Commission
  19. ^ Word of Mouth Marketing Association Ethics Code
  20. ^ American Marketing Association Best Practices for Word of Mouth Communications

This article uses material from the Wikipedia article Word-of-mouth, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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