Product Placement

The ‘PP’ icon used in the UK for programmes which have product placement within them.

Product placement, or embedded marketing,branded goods or services are placed in a context usually devoid of ads, such as movies, music videos, the story line of television shows, or news programs. Traditionally the product placement is not disclosed at the time that the good or service is featured.

In April 2006, Broadcasting & Cable reported, “Two thirds of advertisers employ ‘branded entertainment’—product placement—with the vast majority of that (80%) in commercial TV programming.” The story, based on a survey by the Association of National Advertisers, said “Reasons for using in-show plugs varied from ‘stronger emotional connection’ to better dovetailing with relevant content, to targeting a specific group.”[5]

Contents

[edit] Early examples

Product placement dates back to the nineteenth century in publishing.[citation needed] By the time Jules Verne published the adventure novel Around the World in Eighty Days (1873), he was a world-renowned literary giant to the extent transport and shipping companies lobbied to be mentioned in the story as it was published in serial form. Whether he was actually paid to do so, however, remains unknown.[6] Product placement is still used in books to some extent, particularly in novels.

Self-advertising: A German countess holds a copy of the magazine Die Woche in her hands. The photo appeared in 1902 in an issue of Die Woche (detail of the actual photograph)

With the arrival of photo-rich periodicals in print business in the late 19th century publishers found ways of lifting their paper’s reputation by placing an actual copy of the magazine in photographs of prominent people. For example the German magazine Die Woche in 1902 printed an article about a countess in her castle where she in one of the photographs actually holds a copy of Die Woche in her hands.[7]

Recent scholarship in film and media studies has drawn attention to the fact that product placement was a common feature of many of the earliest [9]

During the next four decades, [11] Harrison’s Reports published several incidents about Corona typewriters appearing in films of the mid-1920s.

[edit] Placement in movies

[edit] Placement in movies

Recognizable brand names appeared in movies from cinema’s earliest history. Before films were even narrative forms in the sense that they are recognised today, industrial concerns funded the making of what film scholar Tom Gunning has described as “cinematic attractions”[15]

[edit] Product placement in movies

Product placement is an investment for brands trying to reach a niche audience, and there are strong reasons for investors to expect that film product placement will increase consumer awareness of a particular brand. A big-budget feature film that has expectations of grossing millions may attract many commercial interests; however, the film studio must also analyze if a product fits with the image of the film. A high-profile star may draw more attention to a product, and therefore, in many cases, this becomes a separate point of negotiation within his or her contract.[16]

Among the famous Hershey’s chocolate.

Fritz Lang’s film Wrigley’s PK Chewing Gum, which is right in the viewer’s eye for approximately 20–30 seconds.

Another early example in film occurs in Life Savers candy.

The film National Geographic.

In the film Love Happy (1949), Harpo Marx‘s character cavorts on a rooftop among various billboards and at one point escapes from the villains on the old Mobil logo, the “Flying Red Horse”. Harrison’s Reports severely criticized this scene in its film review[17] and in a front-page editorial of the same issue.

In the Bulova clock is prominently seen.

In other early media, e.g., radio in the 1930s and 1940s and early television in the 1950s, television programs were often Hallmark Cards.

The conspicuous display of Hazel (1961–1966), which was sponsored by the Ford Motor Company from 1961 to 1965, are also notable examples of product placement.

Incorporation of products into the actual plot of a film or television show is generally called “brand integration”. An early example of such brand integration was by Paula Prentiss.

The 1995 film Omega SA. The film brought in more than $300 million dollars.

With the 2002 film Thunderbirds, their logo on the cars appears many times in the film, even up close.

A recent example is Pontiac Trans Am, is another example of brand integration.

[edit] Psychological research

[edit] Ways to measure product placement

[edit] Economic effects

One way to measure product placement is to measure the economic effects it has on a certain product or in particular how product placement affects the stock price of a company. It has been found that companies that place products in upcoming box office movies tend to have an increase in stock price starting 10 days before the movie’s release and lasting for three weeks after the movie release.[19]

[edit] Implicit memory

Product placement is also measured through implicit memory. One way to measure implicit memory is to see if participants chose a certain product over other products after seeing a product placement. For example, researchers had children view the movie Home Alone, which featured the cola drink Pepsi. After viewing the movie, kids were asked to grab a drink before the interview began. They had a choice of Coke or Pepsi and researchers recorded what kind of drink the children chose. This measures implicit memory because the children chose the kind of cola without thinking or being prompted by the researchers. Ultimately, the children chose Pepsi, which shows that the placement had an impact on on their implicit memory.[20]

[edit] Explicit memory

A third way to measure product placement is by measuring one’s explicit memory. A common method of measuring explicit memory is product recall, where an experimenter asks a participant what brands he or she can remember from a film. Sometimes brand recall is prompted by giving the participant categories or brands to help them remember certain products,[23]

[edit] Accuracy

Lastly, product placement can be measured in terms of how accurately it targeted the film’s audience, meaning did the product match accurately with the demographic of the audience. In Spain, in-home interviews were done to measure the accuracy of product placements in a selection of films. Movies made in the United States more accurately targeted the Spanish participants compared to European movies. Also, the movies that best targeted their audience were movies that took place in the past instead of present day.[24]

[edit] The effectiveness of product placements

It has been found that product placements are effective is getting people to buy or chose products. As mentioned previously, a group of children watched the movie Home Alone, which featured Pepsi. After watching the movie, the children were given the choice of Pepsi or Coke. 62% of children who had just watched the movie chose Pepsi whereas only 42% of the children who had not seen the movie that day chose Pepsi. [25]

Product placements may be so effective because viewers and consumers are all trying to reach an ideal self and while trying to achieve this ideal self they indulge into the stories that the product placements tell. The role of Bollinger (champagne), Jaguar, and Aston Martin was looked at in three vignettes from James Bond movies. In each of these vignettes, these products took on a personality and a role that consumers would want to indulge in and take on. For example, the Aston Martin seemed to be heroic while the Jaguar seemed to be villainous and their roles within the movie held true to these characteristics.[26]

Brand placements can be more effective than advertisements. It has been indicated that people like brand placements on the radio more than regular radio commercials. They also thought that brand placements on the radio were more legitimate than commercials.[27] Although this study was done with radio, it is likely that these findings may also apply to film.

[edit] Film factors that influence effectiveness

[edit] Type of product placement

Product placements can be visual, auditory, or audiovisual. After viewing a Seinfeld episode with all three kinds of product placements, a recall task with participants indicated that audiovisual product placements were recalled the best, visual product placements were remembered second best, and audiovisual placements were remembered third best. In a recognition test audiovisual was still remembered the best but audio placements were remembered second best and visual placements were remembered third best.[29]

[edit] Character attractiveness

Evidence indicates that product placement with an attractive character may make the product placement more successful. When brand names were paired with unattractive and attractive faces, people tended to like the brand names that were paired with attractive faces more than those paired with unattractive faces. Also, the more times a brand was paired with an attractive face, the more people liked it.[30]

[edit] Product prominence

The prominence of a product placement can impact its’ effectiveness. After viewing movie clips with McDonalds product placements, participants thought more poorly of McDonalds after they viewed repeated prominent product placements but not when they viewed repeated subtle product placements. People were more likely to think that repeated prominent product placements was distracting and that they made the movie feel less real. The moderate repetition of subtle product placements did not significantly influence people’s feelings on distraction or how real the movie was.[31]

[edit] Plot integration

Products that are integrated within the plot of a movie are better remembered than those that are not well integrated with the plot of a movie. However, this has been found not true if there are more than one product placements shown at a time.[33]

[edit] Other factors

Product placements are more effective if a movie is viewed on a larger screen compared to on a smaller one, such as a laptop.[35]

[edit] Audience factors that influence effectiveness

[edit] Field dependence-independence

Whether a person is field dependent or field independent can impact effectiveness. A person who is field independent (FI) is someone who is “better able to separate a stimulus from its embedding contexts” and as a result are better at noticing product placements in film. A person who is field dependent (FD) has a hard time viewing an object and its’ context or background as different entities and has “more difficulties differentiating between relevant and irrelevant information compared with FI individuals.” Research shows that field independent people notice product placements significantly more than the field dependent people. Because of this, field independent people were better at brand recall. Additionally, field dependent people tend to like placed brands more than field independent people due to the fact that field independent people were more aware that the intention of the product placement was to get them to buy the product.[36]

[edit] Attention

Multitasking also affects the effectiveness of a product placement. Researchers found that people who were cognitively loaded (preoccupied) thought negatively of products that were well incorporated in the plot compared to those people who were not cognitively loaded (focused solely on the movie). However, cognitively loaded people had a more positive attitude towards products that seemed to interfere with the plot compared to those people who were not cognitively loaded. Also, people who were cognitively loaded tended to view products that were well incorporated in the plot as the same as the competitor product. Products that interfered with the plot were preferred by cognitively loaded people compared to the competitor product and not preferred by non-cognitively loaded people. These findings show that no product placement can be perfect as many people watch movies while doing other tasks and many put forth their full attention while watching movies.[38]

[edit] Nationality, ethinicity, & age

Nationality also plays a role in how likely a person is to purchase a placed product. It has been found that Americans are more apt to purchase a product they saw placed in a movie compared to French and Austrian people.[40]

[edit] Brand consciousness

Brand consciousness also impacts the effectiveness of product placements. It has been found that adolescents who are brand conscious are more aware of product placements and like them more than those who are not brand conscious.[41] This is probably because brand conscious people are interested in brands and want keep up with the latest products.

[edit] Product placement in other types of media

[edit] Video games

Research has shown that people who played a violent video game recalled and recognized significantly more brands placed in the video game thanpeople who played a nonviolent video game. However, people who played a violent video game thought more negatively about the products that were placed compared to participants who played a nonviolent video game. Researchers believe that when playing violent video games, people are required to pay more attention to the game, which takes attention away from other aspects including the product placements.[42]

[edit] Broadway

Looking at product placement in Broadway plays, researchers prompted participants with categories such as clothing or household appliances and participants were asked to recall the brands of these categories that they remembered seeing in the play. Findings show that audiovisual products were recalled 30.9% of the time, visual products were recalled 1.8% of the time, and audio only 3.8% of the time. Additionally, participants recalled prominent product placements significantly more than subtle product placements. There was no difference in recall ability between products shown for more or less than 10 seconds and for products shown in the first half and second half of the play. This may be because it is harder to notice product placements in Broadway plays because the stage is huge and there is constantly movement and scene changes on stage, making them harder to see and notice. Also, people may be paying attention to the music, which distracts them from noticing the product placements.[43]

[edit] Music

Product placement in music is new to psychological research. Researchers had participants listen to a French chanson and a French rap song and fill out a questionnaire. In general, people did not think negatively of the product placements in the songs because they believed that singers have creative freedom to do what they want. Also participants who knew who the artists of the two songs were knew more brands that were mentioned than those who were unable to identify the artist. Researchers believe this is because of two reasons. First, if people are familiar with an artist they are more likely to pay more attention to the song. Second, if the person was familiar with the song there is a chance that they may have heard it before. It was also found that if participants “approved” of the artist they recalled and recognized more brands than those that didn’t. Similarly, participants that “appreciated” the artist of the song thought better of the product placements than those that didn’t.[44]

[edit] Ethics

The ethics of three kinds of TV shows has been looked at: quiz/variety shows, informational shows, and mini-series/drama shows. In general, participants thought that implicit product placement was less ethical than explicit product placement. The researchers defined implicit product placement as “where the brand, the firm or the product is present within the program without begin formally expressed: it plays a passive, contextual role.” The researchers break explicit product placement into two kinds. Integrated explicit is “ whenever the brand or the firm is formally expressed within the program: it plays an active role.” Non-integrated explicit is “ where the brand or the firm is formally expressed but is not integrated within the contents of the program.”[46] This suggests that the ethics of product placement in film may depend on film type or genre. Additionally, it is likely that film viewers may also think that explicit product placement is more ethical than implicit placement as these television viewers did.

Nationality impacts how ethical one sees product placements. Compared to Austrians, Americans thought that all product placements, those thought to be ethical and non ethical, were ok. The French participants differed only slightly from the American participants, as they thought only ethical product placements were ok.[47]

[edit] Product Placement in television

[edit] Digital product placement

Digital product placement in television is the placing of digitally placing contemporary products into old television shows, altering the products from original production.[49]

Television shows are most desired for product placement due to the ideal interior locations and opportunities to place their brand-name items. Examples of digital product placement can be seen in CBS studio’s shows Numb3rs and Still Standing; where one scene may be originally shot with a blank table, but once the show is aired the table appears to be fully dressed with sponsored products from advertisers.[50]

[edit] Self promotion

Independence Day (1996).

The Coca-Cola Company, Coca-Cola products were often featured.

[edit] Product placement in soap operas in the US and New Zealand

Research by Pervan and Martin (2002) examined product placement in US and New Zealand television soap operas. The results indicated a high level of product placement and brand references. Furthermore significant differences in the types of product and the emotional outcome of product use were found between the countries. For instance, US soaps tended to show more negative emotional outcomes associated with product use whereas New Zealand soaps presented a more positive emotional outcome with product use. [51]

[edit] Product placement in video games

Interactive content such as games can be combined with advertisement in the form of product placement. Virtual characters can use sponsored objects and move in commercially themed environments. Further, quests and missions can contain brand messages. Those placements are most often sold by the video game owner to paying brands and agencies.

However, sometimes the economics are reversed and video-game makers pay for the rights to use real sports teams and players. Today, product placement in online video is also becoming common.

Online agencies are specializing in connecting online video producers, which are usually individuals, with brands and advertisers.

The following lists some examples from three decades of product placement in video games:

Pole Position (1982)
An early example of product placement in a Atari Games.
Pole Position II
In Tang orange drink mix.
Action Biker
A later example occurs in KP Snacks.
Crazy Taxi (1999)
More recently, Crazy Taxi (1999), featured real retail stores as game destinations.
Alan Wake
In Verizon also features in the game in the form of in-game billboards and cellphones, including Verizon’s “Can you hear me now?” campaign.

[edit] Sports

Product placement has long been prevalent in sports as well, from television, which increases exposure to these products.

[edit] NFL

While the now-defunct NFL Europe allowed liberal use of sponsors with the team’s uniforms, the main Gillette. In 2008, the league allowed sponsors on the practice jerseys of the uniforms, but not the game-worn uniforms.

The NFL’s strict policy contradicts several other policies on the uniforms. In 1991, the league allowed the individual uniform suppliers to display their logo on the products they made in conjunction with the rest of the sports world, and since 2012, Nike has been the official uniform supplier for the entire league.

In addition, two of the league’s flagship teams—the trademark on the logo.

Going the other way, the league has been shown to place itself as the product. Eyeshield 21, which ran for 145 TV episodes and a handful of specials.

[edit] Categories and variations

Actual product placement falls into two categories: products or locations that are obtained from manufacturers or owners to reduce the cost of production, and products deliberately placed into productions in exchange for fees.[53]

Sometimes, product usage is negotiated rather than paid for. Some placements provide productions with below-the-line savings, with products such as props, clothes and cars being loaned for the production’s use, thereby saving them purchase or rental fees. Barter systems (the director/actor/producer wants one for himself) and service deals (cellular phones provided for crew use, for instance) are also common practices. Producers may also seek out companies for product placements as another savings or revenue stream for the movie, with, for example, products used in exchange for help funding advertisements tied-in with a film’s release, a show’s new season or other event. In some instances companies will donate products to set designers and prop companies, this way the company will make their brand visible without having to pay for the placement.[54]

In automotive racing, the concept of the factory-backed contestant, who is provided with vehicles and technical support in return for the car’s manufacturer obtaining visibility for its products in stock car competition, dates in NASCAR to the 1950s and Marshall Teague‘s factory-backed Fabulous Hudson Hornet. “Win on Sunday, sell on Monday” was once a common cliché among automakers.[55]

A variant of product placement is advertisement placement. In this case an billboard or a truck with a milk advertisement on its trailer.

Another variant of promotional consideration occurs when a game show awards a product as a prize and promotes the prize on the air in return for consideration from the product’s manufacturer. On game shows, the promotion generally consists of displaying the prize and/or its packaging and reading descriptive copy which is generally seven seconds in length. Depending on its value, the supplier may give the show a prize at a discount (cars, boats, travel trailers, etc.), as an even trade, or as a so-called “fee item” where the prize is of relatively low value (e.g. grocery and other consumer items) and the supplier pays an additional fee in addition to providing the prize itself. The prize, together with any fee paid or discount received, are all considered to be “valuable consideration”.

A variant of product placement is product integration. Product integration varies from product placement because product integration goes beyond just having the product on the screen as part of the show. According to Amanda Lotz, product integration is defined as instances when “the product or company name becomes part of the show in such a way that it contributes to the narrative and creates an environment of brand awareness beyond that produced by advanced placement.”[57]

[edit] Measuring effectiveness

Quantification methods track brand integrations, with both basic qualitative systems used to determine the cost and effective media value of a placement. Rating systems measure the type of placement and on-screen exposure is gauged by audience recall rates. Products might be featured but hardly identifiable, clearly identifiable, long or recurrent in exposure, associated with a main character, verbally mentioned and/or they may play a key role in the storyline. Media values are also weighed over time, depending on a specific product’s degree of presence in the market.

[edit] Consumer response and economic impact

As with any advertising, its effectiveness tends to be assumed because advertisers continue to use product placement as a marketing strategy. However, some consumer groups such as Commercial Alert object to the practice as “an affront to basic honesty”[58] that they claim is too common in today’s society. Commercial Alert asks for full disclosure of all product-placement arrangements, arguing that most product placements are deceptive and not clearly disclosed. It advocates notification before and during television programs with embedded advertisements. One justification for this is to allow greater parental control for children, whom it claims are easily influenced by product placement.

The Writers Guild of America, a trade union representing authors of television scripts, had raised objections in 2005 that its members are forced to write ad copy disguised as storyline on the grounds that “the result is that tens of millions of viewers are sometimes being sold products without their knowledge, sold in opaque, subliminal ways and sold in violation of government regulations.”[59]

According to citation needed]

In a June 2010 research report, “PQ Media Global Branded Entertainment Marketing Forecast,” the research firm reported that paid product placement spending – in television, films, internet, video games and other media – declined in 2009 for the first time in tracked history, as spending decreased 2.8% to $3.61 billion due to severe reductions in brand marketers’ budgets. However, paid product placement is also one of the sectors poised for the most growth, with PQ Media predicting the 2009 figures to more than double by 2014, when product placement is projected to be a $6.1 billion market.[60]

A major driver of growth for the use of product placement is the increasing use of citation needed] This ad-skipping behavior increases in frequency the longer a household has owned a DVR.

[edit] Products

Certain products are featured more than others. Commonly seen are automobiles, consumer electronics and computers, and tobacco products.[citation needed]

[edit] Automobiles

The most common 24 (2001–2010).

The James Bond film series pioneered such placement.[61] The Bond film The Man with the Golden Gun (1974) features extensive use of AMC cars, even in scenes in Thailand, where AMC cars were not sold, and had the steering wheel on the wrong side of the vehicle for the country’s roads. The two prior Bond films use vehicles from Ford or its subsidiaries. Three of the Bond films that star Pierce Brosnan feature a BMW car.[clarification needed] After pressure from fans, the producers returned to using the traditional Aston Martin, which was owned by Ford Motor Company at the time and thus brought in more product placement.

Almost every car that was placed in the films General Motors.

In the film South America; the film’s credits acknowledge the automaker as having funded portions of the film’s production.

Other times, vehicles or other products take on such key roles in the film it is as if they are additional characters. motorcycle in the getaway.

In [63]

A Ford Expedition EL.

In the film France.

All the cars in the video game Dodge.

I, Robot (2004) as a product placement for their brand.

In the 2003 film-adaptation of The Cat in the Hat, most of the vehicles featured are first-generation Ford Focuses[67]

[edit] Consumer electronics and computers

Pixar.)

In a twist on traditional product placement, The Office.

Throughout the television series Stargate SG-1 in its last seasons switched from traditional CRT monitors in the gate-rooms to Dell-branded LCDs.

The film Cyber-shot camera to take photographs. (It was the first Bond film to be produced after Sony acquired the Bond franchise).

In the March 31, 2010, episode of the television series Modern Family the new Apple iPad was used as part of the storyline and also displayed several of the features to entice consumers.[69]

In WarGames (1983), the use of an IMSAI 8080 desktop computer was originally proposed by Cliff McMullen of Unique Products, the same Los Angeles product placement company that placed Reese’s Pieces in Steven Spielberg‘s E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial (1982).[70] Other WarGames product placements include the main character’s mother being portrayed as a real estate broker at the behest of marketers at Century 21.

In the film Bloomingdale’s department store.

In the television series PowerBook G3 laptop.

In the HBO series The Sopranos, both Apple and Gateway place computers and Nokia and Motorola place cell phones. According to USA Todays Michael McCarthy, “Motorola places about three or four cell phone models each season, with Tony favoring the StarTac.”[71]

In video games, products that most often appear are placements for processors or graphics cards. For example in EA’s Battlefield 2142, ads for Intel Core 2 processors appear on map billboards. EA’s The Sims contains in-game advertising for Intel and for McDonald’s. Rare‘s Perfect Dark Zero features many ads for Samsung in their menus.[72]

In the video game DIESEL clothing, and on various billboards.

In the video game Sony cellular phones.

Apple products.

Many drama TV series from citation needed]

[edit] Food and drink

  • In American Idol, Coca-Cola cups are always seen on the judges’ table.
  • In the Pepsi Cola is also featured widely.
  • In Taco Bell, are featured in various scenes.
  • In the game Burger King, such as billboards and restaurants.
  • An infamous example occurs in the movie McDonalds restaurant and break into a lengthy song and dance number which is largely unrelated to the overall plot.

In addition to placing brand specific elements within the context of a given program, entire formats of media have been created to feature individual brands within the context of a genre. An example of this is The Corkscrew Diary (2006),[77] in which this travelogue about wine and food features emerging destination estates and the wines they produce.

[edit] Travel

The promotion of individual travel destinations and services ranges from subtle to overt.

While the award of “an all expense-paid trip” to some destination as a game show prize or an acknowledgement in a show’s closing credits that transportation for participants was provided by a specific airline had long been commonplace in commercial television, a more refined approach to promoting a travel destination is to assist and subsidize film production companies willing to set their story in or shoot footage on-location at the destination being promoted.

A movie set in an individual travel destination can be a valuable advertisement. According to State of Florida film commissioner Paul Sirmons, “the movies create huge, larger-than-life ads for where they are shot. CSI: Miami draws people from overseas to Miami. Seaside, was put on the map by The Truman Show (1998). Movies just keep playing year after year getting the images out there.”[78]

The television series [80]

A fictional Pan Am “Space Clipper”, a commercial spaceplane called the Orion III, had a prominent role in Stanley Kubrick’s film 2001: A Space Odyssey, featured in the movie’s poster.[81] The film’s sequel, 2010, also featured Pan Am in a background television commercial in the home of David Bowman’s widow.

In the sci-fi series logo.

Pan Am’s 707 appeared in several James Bond films including James Bond checks in for a Pan Am flight that he ultimately does not board.

Boeing jets and runway facilities which would otherwise be difficult to obtain on a limited budget.

[edit] Tobacco

Tobacco companies have made direct payment to stars for using their cigarettes in films. Documentation of $500,000 in payments to [84]

The James Bond film Marlboro cigarettes, omit the Surgeon General’s Warning.

Reviewing previously secret tobacco advertising documents, the British Medical Journal concluded:

The tobacco industry recruits new smokers by associating its products with fun, excitement, sex, wealth, and power and as a means of expressing rebellion and independence. One of the ways it has found to promote these associations has been to encourage smoking in entertainment productions.1 Exposure to smoking in entertainment media is associated with increased smoking and favourable attitudes towards tobacco use among adolescents.

While the tobacco industry has routinely denied active involvement in entertainment programming, previously secret tobacco industry documents made available in the USA show that the industry has had a long and deep relationship with Hollywood. Placing tobacco products in movies and on television (fig 1Go), encouraging celebrity use and endorsement, advertising in entertainment oriented magazines, designing advertising campaigns to reflect Hollywood glamour, and sponsoring entertainment oriented events have all been part of the industry’s relationship with the entertainment industry.
— How the tobacco industry built its relationship with Hollywood, BMJ 2002[85]

[edit] Radio, television and publishing

[edit] Reality television

Product-placement advertisements can be common in reality television shows. For example the well-known Russian television show дом-2 (phoneticly Dom-2) (similar to Big Brother) often features one of the participants stating something along the lines of: “Oh, did you check out the new product X by company Y yet?” after which the camera zooms in onto the named product. It has been claimed that the participants get paid for it. Recently[when?] in the United States series The Real World/Road Rules Challenge participants often state a similar line, usually pertaining to the mobile device and carrier a text message has been received.

The ABC television series Extreme Makeover: Home Edition has several sponsors with prominent placement deals, such as Sears, Ford Motor Company and Pella Windows.[86]

[edit] Public and educational television

In the United States, most educational television operates under a funding model in which local stations receive donations from “Viewers Like You” but do not interrupt programming directly with spot advertising. While the use of underwriting as a form of indirect advertisement (“Production [or local acquisition] of this program is made possible by X, makers of Y”) is permissible and common on non-commercial educational stations, price comparisons or calls to action (“Buy X now, ten cents off, this week only!”) of the form used by commercial television are expressly prohibited as a condition of the station’s license.[87]

It may therefore make good business sense for an underwriter of an educational program to obtain greater visibility through a form of promotional consideration in which (for instance) a manufacturer of woodworking tools could, instead of merely donating money to fund production of a popular home-improvement show, go one step further by also providing the tools used on-air to build the individual projects.

This approach is suitable both for commercial and non-commercial television, but requires very careful targeting to match a product to a show that naturally would already use that product. A program-like commercial duct tape.

One unusual placement is [89]

[edit] Television programs

List of television shows with the most instances of product placement (11/07–11/08; clarification needed]

[edit] Advertiser-produced programming

In 2010 [91]

[edit] Comic publishing

Supa Strikas uses product placement within its pages to promote a variety of brands, and allow for the comic’s free distribution to its readers around the world. Product placement occurs throughout the publication; on the players’ shirts, through placed billboards and signage, and through the branding of locations or scenarios.

Globally, Supa Strikas receives the majority of its support from Malaysia.

In other markets—where Chevron lacks a presence—other headline brands sponsor the team’s kit, including Visa in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania; GTBank in Nigeria; and Henkel‘s Loctite brand in Brazil. In addition, other brands also receive advertising in the comics and animation, with their logos included as both billboard and background advertising, and through the branding of locations and scenarios. These companies include Metropolitan Life, Nike, Spur Steak Ranches and the South African National Roads Agency, among others.

This innovative approach to comic publication has seen the brand grow dramatically over the last few years, with Supa Strikas now reaching an estimated ten million readers a week worldwide. Today, the comic is available across Africa (Botswana, Cameroon, Egypt, Ghana, Kenya, Mauritius, Namibia, Nigeria, Réunion, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia); in Latin America (Brazil, Colombia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Panama); in Europe (Finland, Norway and Sweden); and Asia (Malaysia).[92]

The Supa Strikas model has shown considerable successes, leading to the creation of a number of other titles which use the same system. These include cricket comic Supa Tigers, which is distributed in Panama.

[edit] Music and recording industries

While radio and television stations are, at least in theory, strictly regulated by national governments, producers of printed or recorded works are not, leading marketers in some cases to attempt to get advertisers’ brands mentioned in lyrics of popular songs.

In 2008, [93]

In January 2009, an album Migra Corridos, with five songs including accordion ballad “El Mas Grande Enemigo”, had received airplay on twenty-five Mexican radio stations. The tune purports to be the lament of a would-be immigrant left to die in the [98]

In 2010, a video for [101]

In 2011, [104]

[106]

[108]

[edit] Legal considerations

[edit] United States

A TV or film studio does not need permission from a company to display or mention its products or service in media form. For example, Warner Bros. Television‘s The Big Bang Theory uses a restaurant of The Cheesecake Factory as a setting without any formal arrangement with the chain. As no money is exchanged, there is no need to mention “promotional considerations”.[109] Much of the current body of broadcast law pertaining to the obligation of licensed broadcasters to disclose to audiences when they (or their staff) receive money or valuables in return for on-air promotion of a product dates to the payola scandals of 1950s broadcast radio.

An investigation launched in November 1959 into allegations that some radio disc jockeys had accepted bribes in return for radio airplay[111]

While these provisions have been taken into legal consideration in subsequent payola investigations, including one 2005 investigation by New York State Attorney General Eliot Spitzer into Sony BMG and other major record companies,[112] it is probable that a regulation requiring advertisements and advertisers to be clearly identified has far broader implications in many areas, including that of the use of product placement by advertisers in broadcast programming.

Often, a broadcaster will claim to have complied with the regulation by placing some form of acknowledgement of promotional consideration in an inconspicuous place in a broadcast – such as embedded within a portion of a programme’s closing credits. The question of whether adequate disclosure is being provided, however, remains open;[116]

[edit] Extreme and unusual examples

The 1988 film Sears) in nearly every scene, including an infamously irrelevant dance number set in a McDonald’s restaurant as well as a character who wears a McDonald’s uniform throughout nearly the entire film, even when she is not at work.

The film [120]

The film 17 Again makes heavy use of product placement featuring cereals, sandwich fillers, chips, stereo systems, and automobiles.

In the 2000 film Dr. Pepper fill the entire frame, in some instances (such as packets of Dr. Pepper floating past the camera).

The 1999 film adaptation of Inspector Gadget features a billboard for Yahoo!, which fills most of the screen as it falls down to Yahoo!’s promotional sound effect.

The film Demolition Man makes heavy mention of Taco Bell, which in the film’s setting is the only restaurant chain left in society. The film uses this to comic effect but never disparagingly.

The film [123]

The comedy film Talladega Nights: The Ballad of Ricky Bobby also contained a high amount of product placement, as a parody of the large amount of sponsorship in the sport itself. Characters repeatedly mention brands under the disguise of NASCAR sponsorship. The movie contains possibly the first instance of an actual television commercial in a movie. It was intended to mock the controversy with NASCAR fans under the Unified Television Contract 2001-06 where they criticised the excessive number of commercial breaks during races.[124]

Pepsi in a scene where the titular characters steal a Pepsi delivery truck.

Bill Cosby’s film Nintendo Power Glove, he exclaims “I love the Power Glove. It’s so bad.”

The film Sara Lee placement by mentioning it six times throughout the movie.

The 1992 film Coca-Cola sign which can be seen after the film’s first scene where a building is blown up by a bomb.

The 2001 film selenium disulfide, which is poisonous to the creatures. The actors hock Head & Shoulders shampoo in the final scene of the film.

The 2000 film Tom Hanks‘ character names “Wilson.” In one scene, Hanks’ character repeatedly yells “WILSON! WILSON!”

The 2001 film subliminal messages in advertising. The film’s general message can also be construed as an anti-consumerist one. The producers neither sought nor received compensation for featuring the brands in the film.

The Japanese animated series Pizza Hut. Despite the fact that the series is set in an alternate reality, at least one main character is depicted ordering and receiving a Pizza Hut pizza on several occasions. The company’s logo also appears throughout the series, made still stranger by the fact that Pizza Hut is taken as a symbol of oppression by the Holy Britannian Empire.

The 1994 comedy Roger Ebert made special light of this scene.

The 2009 film Star Trek, in a scene where young James Kirk drives and crashes an old corvette, he operates a Nokia touch-screen smartphone. Before the car crashes, audiences will hear the Nokia trademark ring tone. The Finnish phone maker is even offering Star Trek applications.[125]

The film Ford Focus.

The video game Darkened Skye was funded by Skittles to include product placement whereby magic spells are performed throughout the use of Skittles candy.

[edit] Self-criticism

The [128]

The 1988 film Pepsi billboard installed in front of the villain’s mansion.

The film Tom Cruise) is harassed by personalized advertisements calling out his own name.

The film Starbucks.

The film Chevrolet Corvette for every resident of his town.

The comedy film Betamax, again with the line “It’s a Sony”.

[edit] Faux product placement and parodies

For further information, see Fictional brands.

The 1992 film Wayne’s World included a parody in which both Wayne and Garth decry product placement while at the same time blatantly promoting many products by looking directly at the camera, holding up the product, smiling widely, and sometimes giving a thumbs-up.

The TV series Brand X (Original Air Date—16 April 2000).

The 1984 film “Stay Puft Marshmallow Man.

The 1998 film The Truman Show utilized the concept, although in a manner different than other films. The film’s premise, a 24-hour television broadcast called “The Truman Show” that focuses on the life of Truman Burbank, uses faux product placement. His wife places products in front of the hidden cameras, even naming certain products in dialogue with her husband, all of which increases Truman’s suspicion as he comes to realize his surroundings are intentionally fabricated.

Some filmmakers have responded to product placement by creating fictional products that frequently appear in the movies they make.[citation needed] Examples include:

This practice is also fairly common in certain meta-referential gag, going so far as having an animator on a Codename: Sailor V feature film be a victim in one episode.

This practice is also common in certain “reality-based” video games such as the GTA: San Andreas with Zip), Pizza Boy, etc.

[edit] Reverse placement

So-called “reverse product placement” takes “faux product placement” a step further, by creating products in real life to match those seen in a fictional setting.Nestlé.

In 1949, Crazy Eddie was created as a fictional car dealer in the film A Letter to Three Wives.[131] That name, bestowed in 1971 upon a real-life electronics chain in New York City, appeared in 1984 as advertising placement in Splash; a 1989 parody, UHF, completed the circle by depicting a Crazy Ernie using a hard sell of “buy this car or I’ll club a seal” as a TV ad campaign.

In the 1984 generic packaging used on products prominently shown on-screen (these include “Beer”, “Drink”, “Dry Gin” and “Food – Meat Flavored”).

[edit] Virtual placement

Virtual product placement uses computer graphics to insert the product into the program after the program is complete.[133]

As of 2007, a new trend is emerging in product placement, the development of capabilities that permit dynamic or switchable product placement. Previously post production tools have permitted one time insertion of new product placement images and billboard advertising, notable in televised baseball and hockey games. As of 2007, citation needed] First generation virtual product placement has tended to be based upon sports arenas where the geometrical relationships of camera and the surface of the flat area onto which the billboard is projected, can be easily calculated. Second generation product placement or dynamic product placement is more focused upon commercial products. Third generation virtual or dynamic product placement allows targeting of customers with different products that can be dynamically switched based upon such factors as demographics, psychographics or behavioral information about the consumer.

Where game software has access to a user’s Internet connection, marketers gain the ability to change displayed in-game advertisements on the fly. More controversially, in-game advertising vendors such as Microsoft-owned Massive Incorporated may use software to transmit user information to their servers, such as individual player IDs and data about what was on the screen and for how long.[134]

Also of interest are hypervideo techniques that can insert interactive elements into online video.

[edit] Viewer response

This means of advertisement triggered an unusual viewer response in April 2009, when fans of the television series [140]

[edit] Product displacement

According to logos digitally, costing “tens of thousands of pounds”.

Similarly, in the film The Blues Brothers (1980), portions of the defunct Dixie Square Mall in Harvey, Illinois, were reconstructed in façade and used as the scene of an indoor car chase. Signage belonging to tenants of the mall when it was operational (1966–1978) was in some cases removed and replaced with that of other vendors; for instance, a Walgreens would become a Toys “R” Us.[141]

In Amtrak logos were removed from the train.

In tobacco.

[edit] See also

[edit] Further reading

[edit] References

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  113. ^ Kurtz, Howard (May 25, 2005). “FCC Panelist Wants Probe of Product ‘Payola'”. The Washington Post.
  114. ^ FCC’s Adelstein: Probe ‘Payola’, Ted Hearn, Multichannel News, May 30, 2005
  115. ^ Reform groups want FCC to take on product placement epidemic, Matthew Lasar, ARStechnica, June 22, 2008
  116. ^ Product Placements To Get A Closer Look by the FCC, Huffington Post, June 24, 2008
  117. ^ I, Robot (2004) at Brandspotters.com.
  118. ^ Product Placement in the Film “I, Robot” a Huge Success: The Audi RSQ Spurs on the Brand’s Image Ratings
  119. ^ I, robot – Movie Review – Motor Trend
  120. ^ TOP 10 WORST MOVIES FOR PRODUCT PLACEMENT Movie Feature at TheShiznit.co.uk
  121. ^ Numsum.com Partial list of product placements in The Island. Retrieved March 8, 2007.
  122. ^ Advertisingindustrynewswire.com Criticism of product placements in The Island. Retrieved March 8, 2007.
  123. Agony Booth Discussion of The Island DVD Commentary Track. Retrieved April 26, 2007.
  124. ^ Themoviespoiler.com Plot, product placements. Retrieved March 23, 2007.
  125. ^ Volkswagen Recruits Top Comedic Talent for ‘Inside the VW Academy’ Series of Digital Only Webisodes. Product Placement News. 2011-01-06. http://www.productplacement.biz/200905123080/News/Movies/nokia-product-placement-in-star-trek.html. Retrieved 2012-08-06.
  126. ^ Trivection Oven on kitchencontraptions.com
  127. ^ On ’30 Rock,’ Tina Fey Draws From Her Past At ‘SNL’, Access Hollywood, October 10, 2006
  128. ^ 30 Rock’s Tina Fey Denies Product Placement for McDonalds
  129. ^ “Management Online Review”. Morexpertise.com. 2008-09-30. http://www.morexpertise.com/download.php?id=148. Retrieved 2012-08-06.
  130. ^ “Locate A Kwik-E-Mart Near You”, 7-eleven.com (archived, 2007)
  131. ^ ADVERTISING; Fake Products and the Movies That Loved Them, Stuart Elliott, New York Times, January 9, 2006
  132. ^ Lubbell, Sam (January 2, 2006). “Advertising’s Twilight Zone: That Signpost Up Ahead May Be a Virtual Product”. The New York Times.
  133. ^ Cohen, Nancy (February 23, 2006). “Virtual Product Placement Infiltrates TV, Film, Games”. E-Commerce Times.
  134. ^ Kyllo, Blaine (September 1, 2005). “Ads Get Piece of the Action”. The Georgia Straight.
  135. ^ York, Emily Bryson (April 27, 2009). “Subway Caught Up in Fan Effort to Save NBC Series ‘Chuck'”. Advertising Age. http://adage.com/madisonandvine/article?article_id=136301. Retrieved 2009-04-30.
  136. ^ France, Lisa Respers (April 30, 2009). “‘Save Chuck’ Latest in Campaigns To Rescue Favorite Shows”. CNN. http://edition.cnn.com/2009/SHOWBIZ/TV/04/30/save.chuck.show/. Retrieved 2009-04-30.
  137. ^ Bahar, Narin (April 27, 2009). “Chuck Flashmob Hits Birmingham”. SFX. http://www.sfx.co.uk/page/sfx?entry=blog_chuck_flashmob_hits_birmingham. Retrieved 2009-04-28.
  138. ^ Save Chuck: SideReel.com
  139. ^ THUD: FIVE DOLLAR, FIVE DOLLAR FOOTLONG TO SAVE CHUCK: Chud.com
  140. ^ “Chuck Fans Hit Up Subway”. Crain’s New York Business.
  141. ^ “Dixie Square Mall History”, pawflimworks.com (archived, 2006)



This article uses material from the Wikipedia article Product Placement, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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