In 2001 Hislop defined branding as “the process of creating a relationship or a connection between a company’s product and emotional perception of the customer for the purpose of generation segregation among competition and building loyalty among customers.” In 2004 and 2008, Kapferer and Keller respectively defined it as a fulfillment in customer expectations and consistency in customer satisfaction.
The origination of branding can be traced to ancient times, when specialists often put individual trademarks on hand-crafted goods. The branding of farm animals in Egypt in 2700 BC to avoid theft may be considered a form of trademarking. In 1266, English bakers were required by law to put a specific symbol on each product they sold. Branding became more widely used in the 19th century, through the industrial revolution and the development of new professional fields like marketing, manufacturing and business management.
The modern discipline of brand management is considered to have been started by a famous memo at 
Brand management aims to create an emotional connection between products, companies and their customers and constituents. Brand managers may try to control the image of the brand.
Some believe brand managers can be counter-productive, due to their short-term focus.
 See also
- Brand orientation
- Chief brand officer
- Employer branding
- Brand engagement
- Brand implementation
- Visual brand language
- Shamoon, Sumaira, and Saiqa Tehseen. “Brand Management: What Next?.” Interdisciplinary Journal Of Contemporary Research In Business 2.12 (2011): 435-441. Business Source Complete. Web. 20 Oct. 2012.
- “Neil McElroy’s Epiphany”. P&G Changing the Face of Consumer Marketing. Harvard Business School. 5/2/2000. http://hbswk.hbs.edu/archive/1476.html. Retrieved 3/9/2011.
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